The Paris Agreement explicitly recognizes the need to address such loss and damage and aims to find appropriate responses.  It is specified that loss and damage can take different forms, both as immediate effects of extreme weather events and as slow effects, such as. B loss of land due to sea level rise for low islands.  Iran, Iraq and Libya – all among the 14 members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – and conflict-torn states like Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the agreement. In addition, the agreement establishes a new mechanism to “facilitate implementation and promote compliance.” This “non-adversarial” committee of experts will try to help countries that do not meet their commitments to get back on track. There is no penalty for non-compliance. As part of its commitment to implement a coherent international policy, France has developed effective tools to integrate its climate ambitions into its development strategy. . . .